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NASA’s Lunar probe has captured images of chang ‘e-5 with visible Outlines

The Chang ‘e-5 probe landed on the moon on December 1. The next day, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) captured images of the Chang ‘e-5 probe, which had just arrived on the moon.Images released by NASA show the Chang ‘e-5 probe at the center of a triangular crater that clearly Outlines the lander.After landing on The moon on Dec. 1, Chang ‘e-5 completed scientific missions such as sampling and encapsulation, and displayed its national flag on the moon for the first time. At 2:10 PM on December 3, the Chang ‘e-5 lifter successfully sent the lifter carrying samples into the preset lunar orbit. For the first time, China has realized the liftoff of an extraterrestrial body.

The chang ‘e-5 lander and ascender combination panoramic camera took pictures of the five-starred red flag successfully deployed on the lunar surface Your browser is temporarily unable to play this video.

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At 2310 hours on December 3, the Chang ‘e-5 riser 3000N engine worked and successfully sent the riser carrying samples into the lunar orbit around the point near the moon. Before ignition and takeoff, the landing assembly can unfold the lunar flag and unlock and separate the lifter and lander. The unfurling of the national flag is the first independent display of the national flag on the surface of the moon.

Different from ground take-off, chang ‘e-5 ascender does not have a mature launch tower system for lunar takeoff, and the lander is equivalent to the “temporary tower” of the lifter. The lifter take-off has some problems, such as uncertain initial takeoff reference and attitude of the take-off platform, limited engine plume diversion space, and different earth-moon environment. In addition, since there is no navigation constellation on the moon, the riser needs to achieve autonomous positioning and posture with the help of special sensors carried by itself after taking off with the assistance of ground measurement and control.

Before ignition and takeoff, the landing assembly can unfold the lunar flag and unlock and separate the lifter and lander. The unfurling of the national flag is China’s first “independent display” of the national flag on the lunar surface. After ignition and takeoff, the riser enters the preset orbit around the moon through three stages: vertical ascent, attitude adjustment and orbit launch. The riser will then rendezvous with an orbiting regurgite waiting around the moon, transferring lunar samples to the reentry vehicle, which will wait for the appropriate lunar incident window to be ready to return to Earth.The chang ‘e-5 probe was successfully launched on November 24, 2020, and will carry out a lunar sampling and return mission, the last step of China’s three-step lunar exploration program.

Chang ‘e-5 has successfully landed (landed) in the selected area of the lunar surface after its earth-moon conversion and lunar orbit flight. So far, it has completed the collection of lunar samples and taken off from the lunar surface. After that, the Chang ‘e-5 lander will rendezvous and dock with the orbiter in lunar orbit. It will go through the in-orbit flight process of lunar transfer orbit, re-entry and recovery, and finally “dig earth” and return to Earth.Earlier, reporters also learned that in this process, the ascender to the lander as a launch platform, ignition launch off the lunar surface. After successfully leaving the lunar surface, it will dock with an orbiter that is in lunar orbit, but the “embrace” process will not be easy.

In space far from Earth, the rendezvous between the orbiter and the ascender is called “pinpoint-to-pinpoint,” and the difficult positioning of space is entirely dependent on chang ‘e-5’s own artificial intelligence system.

After docking the lander, it would have to escape the moon’s gravity to reach the moon’s first cosmic velocity of 1.68 km/s. To escape the moon’s gravity and fly back to Earth, you need to reach the moon’s escape velocity of 2.4 kilometers per second.

This time, the target is about 2 kilograms — about 0.5 kilograms of samples drilled and about 1.5 kilograms of samples from the surface. Some people might ask, why not dig a little bit more?

This is because the size of the acquisition needs to correspond to the size of the container, which in turn affects the overall volume, weight, and propellant requirements of the probe. For example, in order to drill a 0.5 kilogram sample, the drilling mechanism on the detector must reach 70 to 80 kilograms; In order to table 1.5 kilograms of samples, table to take the mechanism to dozens of kilograms; The sampling mechanism of more than 100 kilograms will be sent to the moon by the probe, which will affect the overall weight, volume and power consumption of the probe.

So it was a very massive launch — the Chang ‘e-5 probe weighed 8.2 tons. Increasing the sample’s weight means that it may eventually exceed the rocket’s carrying capacity, so 2 kilograms is not a small amount.According to previous reports, during the Chang ‘e-5 mission, infrared and visible spectrum surveillance cameras developed by the Eighth Academy of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation will perfectly display the “embrace” process between the orbiter and the orbiter.

The bis-spectral surveillance camera carried by Chang ‘e-5 is a professional “camera”, whose main business is to record the rendezvous and docking process between the orbiter and the orbiter, the separation process between the orbiter and the lander/ascender, and the separation process between the orbiter and the support module. Different from the surveillance cameras carried in previous missions, this camera integrates infrared and visible light imaging. The infrared and visible light sensors acquire image data through their respective optical lenses, and switch freely in six shooting modes according to the remote command, so as to realize infrared and visible light imaging respectively or simultaneously.This is the equivalent of adding a night-vision camera to a normal camera. Even if the rendezvous and docking takes place on the back of the moon and is not exposed to the sun, we can record the whole process with an infrared camera. In the case of illumination, if the illumination is too strong, the photos taken by the visible light camera may also be overexposed, affecting the viewing effect. The bi-spectral camera ensures that the rendezvous and docking process is recorded in full light throughout the day, and allows the public to view space from an infrared lens.

The reentry vehicle will travel 380,000 kilometers back to Earth and enter the atmosphere in a “floating” manner.The chang ‘e-5 lander returns to earth’s last step, is also a very difficult technical link. That’s because as the returver sped from the moon at a distance of 380,000 kilometers to earth, it approached the second cosmic velocity (11.2 kilometers per second), well above the first cosmic velocity (7.9 kilometers per second) for an ordinary recoverable satellite to return to Earth.

Does that three kilometers difference in speed make a big difference?

Of course! At that speed, it rushes directly into the atmosphere, creating enough friction and impact to quickly incinerate the reentry vehicle. So, the returner took a very special “posture” back to Earth — it would glide along the edge of the atmosphere, slowing down several times, like a “water drift.”

However, it is different from us that we usually drift by hand. Every time the returver comes into contact with the atmosphere, it has to go through precise calculation, and finally it enters the atmosphere at a safe speed. Then, by means of aerodynamic deceleration and parachute deceleration, it lands accurately and safely at the predetermined landing site.That mission was the first time for China to use a semi-ballistic return method, in which the reentry vehicle entered the atmosphere after a controlled jump, then glided back into the atmosphere and flew towards the landing area. However, this method requires extremely high control accuracy. If the returver “jumps” too high, it will deviate from the falling zone, and if it fails to jump, it may directly fall into the atmosphere and be burned up. However, the upper atmosphere 60-90 kilometers away from the ground changes infinitely, and is affected by various factors such as black day and white night, solar wind, geomagnetic field, etc., the atmospheric change errors are very large, which requires the guidance, navigation and control system to be very inclusive.

If the mission is successful, China will become the third country in the world to return samples from the moon. But our lunar mission is far from over. From the launch of Chang ‘e-1 to the launch of Chang ‘e-5, we are still in the stage of “unmanned lunar exploration”. The second and third phases of the lunar exploration program are manned missions to the moon and the establishment of lunar research stations.

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